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Saurabh Kumar Rahul

Polity, Governance, Social Justice, Security and Disaster Management.


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09-Jun-2021 03:36 PM

Building Trust in Governance (The HINDU)


1. Trust is the foundation upon which the legitimacy of public institutions is built and is crucial for maintaining social cohesion.

2. Trust is important for the success of a wide range of public policies that depend on behavioural responses from the public. For example, public trust  leads to greater compliance with regulations and the tax system

3. Trust is necessary to increase the confidence of investors and consumers.

During all stages of the COVID-19 pandemic, including containment, mitigation and recovery, trust in public institutions is vital for governments’ ability to respond rapidly and to secure citizen support.

Key, interdependent, components of good governance that affect trust in government are:

1. Public sector capacity

2. Decentralisation and local governance

3. Electoral and parliamentary processes

4. Civil society engagement and partnerships with the government and the private sector

5. Accountability and transparency of governance

Model of Trust in Governance in India:-

PuraSeva of Andhra Pradesh:- Use Pura Seva App for Create Grievances , Search Grievances , Know your Property Tax , Water Tax

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08-Jun-2021 11:26 AM

Towards a stringer Mental Health Strategy

Context:- Mental health issue which has been important to discuss especially at the time of pandemic.

What is mental illness??

Ans:- It includes anxiety, substance use, personality disorder, eating disorder sometime leading to suicides also.


1. Mental health is not a priority or primary concern in developing economies like India.

How we can say this?? 


1. Challenges of funding, delivery of mental health packages, lack of trained staff.

?? Share of mental hospital per 1 lakh population is .01.

?? Lancet study reveals:- Mental health spending is 1.9% for upper middle income countries.

In India, we have a National mental health policy 2014 and Mental health care act 2017. 

National Mental health Policy:- 

The vision of the National Mental Health Policy is to promote mental health, prevent mental illness, enable recovery from mental illness, promote destigmatization and desegregation, and ensure socio-economic inclusion of persons affected by mental illness by providing accessible, affordable and quality health and social care to all persons through their life-span within a rights-based frame work.

Mental health care act:- 

1. Right to make an Advance Directive:- Patient can state on how to be treated or not to be treated for the illness during a mental health situation.

2. Right to appoint a Nominated Representative:- A person shall have the right to appoint a nominated representative to take on his/her behalf, all health related decisions

3. Attempt to commit suicide not an offence:- This act brought changes in Section 309 of the Indian Penal Code (which criminalized attempted suicide). Now, a person who attempts to commit suicide will be presumed to be “suffering from severe stress’’ and shall not be subjected to any investigation or prosecution.

4. The act envisages the establishment of Central Mental Health Authority and State Mental Health Authority.


1. Communities and families have an important role to play so community based programs is useful.

2. School based program on mental Health can improve mental health care.

3. Companies should set up counselling facilities.

4. Fund allocation needs to increased

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05-Jun-2021 12:13 PM


What is One Nation, One Election?

Ans:- The idea is about structuring the Indian election cycle in a manner so that elections to the Lok Sabha and the State Assemblies are synchronised together so that the election to both can be held within a given span of time.



1. Check on the poll expenses, party expenses.

2. Reduce the burden on administrative setup and security forces.

3. Ensure that the administrative machinery is engaged in developmental activities rather than electioneering.

What is the issue then?


1. If the Government is accountable to the lower house, given the nature of the Parliamentary form of Government, the Government can fall (theoretically) before it completes its term. And the moment the Government falls, there have to be fresh elections. Thus, the core obstruction in the way of implementing simultaneous elections in the country is a Parliamentary form of Government.

2. National issues and State issues are different in nature and implementation.

3. People have a tendency to vote  to the same party in Lok Sabha and State Assemblies.

4. Simultaneous elections will lead to the marginalization of regional parties, which are considered as torch-bearers of local issues.

5. Amendment required in Section 14 and 15 of RPA 1951 and in Constitution (Article 83, 85,174, 172, 75,164)

Suggestion by Law Commission before 2019 General election

Implement in Phased manner by dissolving the States before completion of tenure

1. Election to be held for few states whose tenure is going to end in 2020 and centre in 2019. It means to dissolve such States before completion of tenure. And remaining states can go for election in 2021.

2. Then in 2024, again all the State and Centre can go for simultaneous poll.

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03-Jun-2021 10:36 AM

Adverse changes, Federalism Imperilled

This article talks about disturbing rend in Federalism particularly economics of Federalism. How the strong centre impacts its relation with the state and also highlights how the institution like ED, CBI,IT  is being used by the centre against opponent.


A member of Niti Aayog has remarked that lack of centralisation is the reason for mismanagement of CoVID.But the point to be noted here state government have primary responsibility for health , education and agriculture. 

How the union govt is encroaching in the State domain??


1. One nation one tax ,one nation one ration card is a part of appeal for the need of centralisation of power.

2. Removal of governor with the change in government at centre.

3. Implementation of GST which impacts the revenue of the state government. Shortfall in gst and Center refusal to compensate them this year shows center's increasing power.

4. Centre is encroaching into domain of state government through centrally sponsored schemes in sector like education and health.

5. The author tries to make a case that how the big businesses near to the government ate making profit and benefitting at the expense of small regional players.

6. Use of central institutions against opponent. Centre is also meddling with the appointment of vice chancellor in universities funded and run by state government.

7. Centre is conducting meeting with the secretaries of the state rather than elected representatives. Ex:- New education policy has been discussed with the state secretaries.

8. Centre has fixed differential pricing for procuring vaccine for the state. 

What is differential pricing??

Ans:- As per the pricing policy, states and private hospitals are to procure vaccines from manufacturers at a different price higher than the price at which the Central government procures the vaccine.

Stand of the government:- Differential pricing is based on the concept of creating an incentivised demand for the private vaccine manufacturers in order to instil a competitive market resulting in higher production of vaccines and market driven affordable prices for the same. This will also attract offshore vaccine manufacturers to enter the country. This will result in increased availability of vaccine.

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01-Jun-2021 04:06 PM

Recognising the Caste Based violence against women

This is a Very important article as it highlights one basic question and one basis concept.

Question:- If the rape is committed against Dalit women , why only IPC not prevention of atrocities act ( POA) is invoked??

Concept:- This question is raised because of the concept of "Intersectionality". So first we will understand the concept:-

Intersectionality:- The interconnected nature of social categorisations such as race, class, and gender, regarded as creating overlapping and interdependent systems of discrimination or disadvantage.

Now coming to the question

Context:- Actually a disabled Dalit women has been raped in Andhra Pradesh. The trial court and HC has convicted the accused for a rape under section 376 of IPC, and Prevention of atrocities act also.

However SC has confirmed the conviction but punished him under IPC only. But at least SC has recognised this concept of Intersectionality that the victim was Dalit disabled and women at the same time.

However generally the courts has set aside this intersectional approach as we can see in:-

1. Ramdas vs state of Maharashtra:- The mere fact that victim happened to be women and SC does not attract POA.

2. Khuman singh vs state of MP:- The fact that victim is SC is proved, but offence was committed only because she is SC can't be accepted.

Actually there is no evidence to show that the rape has been committed against any women only because she is  a member of SC/ ST Community.

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28-May-2021 10:11 AM

Nine Pin Bowling aimed at Free Speech, Privacy

This article is about critical analysis of new IT rules and tries to make a case that how these rules impact privacy and security alongwith how it impacts operational cost of intermediaries.

Benefits of new IT Rules:-

1. It mandates the removal of non consensual intimate figures within 24 hours.

2. Publication of compliance report with the new rules is mandatory.

3. Setting of a dispute resolution mechanism.

4. Setting a compliance officer by intermediary.

5. Eliminate the fake news.

6. An intermediary is supposed to take down content within 36 hours upon receiving orders from the government.

Issues/ challenges:-

1. It is against freedom to circulate ones views. Suffocating the voice will lead to autocracy as upheld by supreme court in LIC vs prof Manubhai D Shah.

2. The rules should be framed by Ministry of information and broadcasting not be MeiTY. 

3. The rules has been framed as a subordinate legislation of IT Act but "digital media" is not regulated by IT Act.

4. The rules talks about "Traceability requirement" of the content posted, shared by the users. Before this rule, intermediary does not access to the content of messages because of end to end encryption. Imposing this traceability requirement will break this immunity to the users and thus impacts privacy.

5. In the name of removal of fake news, govt may direct the intermediary to remove any content  which is against the govt.

6. The rules says there should be indian resident  nodal officers, compliance offices and intermediaries are required to have office in India. This impacts the profit of these intermediary by increasing  the operational cost.

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27-May-2021 11:18 AM

Social media and safe harbour

This article can be read in sync with yesterdays news where i have discussed the new IT Rules and said that Now, Intermediaries will be liable for any content posted on the platform. Today's article talks about Section 79 of IT Act which provided exemption from any liablity to the owner of platform in case any person posted anything on their platform. 

So can we say : The protection under article 79 is not guaranteed now.

Try to understand one thing here:- The new Rules says this platform owner should appoint Grievance officer or chief compliance officer to look after all the content who will be liable in case if intermediary fails to observe the new guidelines . So YES, PROTECTION UNDER SECTION 79 of IT Act will not be applicable now.

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27-May-2021 10:56 AM

Imperious Missteps (The HINDU)

The information in the article is  important ,but what is more significant :-

Where to use this information?

Ans:- This information can be used in any question relating to development VS Displacement OR The Role of Administrator.

Now what is the information??

Ans:- Recently Lakshadweep Administrator has drafted a new regulations Lakshadweep Development Authority Regulation 2021 which says:-

1. Taking over the land of people and relocate them in the name of development. This power of taking the land will be in the hands of administrator.

2. The Regulation also gives the powers to the Government to choose any land for “development” activities that have been provided under its regulation.

3. Once the land is picked, it could be used as per the government sees fit. This means the owner would have no control over the land whatsoever because the land would be provided for a "public purpose". 

4. This draft report also raises concerns as development would mean the activities including "building, engineering, mining, quarrying or other operations in, on, over or under, land, the cutting of a hill or any portion or the making of any material change in any building or land, or in the use of any building or land, and includes sub-division of any land."

5. A controversy that surrounds the regulation is the ban on contesting elections of the Panchayat in case anyone has more than 2 children. This ban has been put forward in the Draft Lakshadweep Panchayat Regulation, 2021. 

Along with this regulation, there is a Goonda Act ,which says any body van be held in jail for a year without any reason.

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26-May-2021 08:55 AM

New IT Rules came into force

Now the government has made it mandatory to follow the new rules from today. However the rules is not explicit about the consequences for non compliance of the new rules.  But if you will read the rules correctly, nom compliance means protection against civil and criminal liability for content posted by the third party will not be guaranteed. It means protection of these liabilities will end.

IT RULES:- The Information Technology [Intermediaries Guidelines (Amendment) Rules] :-

1. Social media intermediaries should publish rules, privacy policy to stop users from engaging in online material which is paedophilic, pornographic, hateful, racially and ethnically objectionable, invasive of privacy, etc.

2. The online intermediaries should provide information or assistance within 72 hours when asked by any government agency for reasons of State security, cyber security, investigation, detection, prosecution or prevention of offences.

3. The online intermediaries should appoint in India, a nodal person of contact for 24X7 coordination with law enforcement agencies and ensure compliance with their orders.

Online Intermediaries should remove or disable access to unlawful content, within 24 hours.

4. The intermediary is also expected to preserve such information and associated records for at least 180 days for investigation purposes.

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26-May-2021 08:52 AM

Still grappling with online classes

Context:- Shift to online education should be in phased manner.

There are 993 universities, 14 lakh Teachers and 3 crore students in India ( All India survey on higher education). So if we are taking any drastic step like shifting from conventional to online teaching needs a wider Consultation. But the question is WHY??

1. Internet penetration:- According to the NSSO conducted between July 2017 and June 2018, just 4.4 rural households have a computer, against 14.4 per cent in an urban area.It had just 14.9 per cent rural households having access to the internet against 42 per cent households in urban areas.

2. Overburdened teacher.

3. Non appropriate study material:- just uploading the PDF or PPT will not work. Online teaching is killing imaginative thinking in the absence of application based learning.

So online teaching may be a good idea for premier institutions like iit, iim where thee is no dearth of infrastructure, but not for for the state university and colleges.

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15-May-2021 12:36 PM

Lend a helping hand to children in the right way

For the last few days the article revolves around the "adoption of child". Now what happens most of the students just read the content, but upsc may ask another question based on this theme. I am just giving you an example:-

1. Examine the SC endeavour in Protection of Child Rights.

2. Make an assessment of the role of NCPCR in promotion, protection of Child Rights.

So now read the article:-

1. What to do when you get a Orphan child?

2. What is the SC ruling on adoption of child?

3. What is the role of NCPCR??

Answer:- As you get orphan child:-

1. Call on toll free number 1098.

2. Inform the district protection officer concerned whose contact details can be found on National tracking system for missing and vulnerable children.

3. Approach the nearest police Station.

4. Call on 112, pan India emergency number.


Sampurna Behrua vs UOI:- Any voluntary organisation not registered as per the requirement of Juvenile justice cannot house children in the need of care and protection.

Bachpan bachao Andolan vs UOI:- One police office not below the rank of ASI, is mandatorily to go undergo training to deal with children.

Exploitation of children in orphanges in the state of TN:- National police academy should prepare training courses on the JJA and provide regular training to police officer.


Here you should know about its role which can be written in answer only. 

The National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) emphasises the principle of universality and inviolability of child rights and recognises the tone of urgency in all the child related policies of the country.

One of the Core Mandates of the Commission is to inquire into complaints of violations of child rights. The commission is also required to take suo moto cognisance of serious cases of violation of child rights and to examine factors that inhibit the enjoyment of rights of children.

Complaints may be made to the Commission in any language listed in the 8th Schedule of the Constitution.

1. No fee shall be chargeable on such complaints.

2. The complaint shall disclose a complete picture of the matter leading to the complaint.

3. The Commission may seek further information/affidavit as may be considered necessary.

On Adoption of Child

The National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) recently wrote to the Chief Secretaries of all States and Union Territories on the issue of children orphaned due to COVID-19. It said that that ‘if any such information about an abandoned or orphaned child is received by any entity, organisation, or NGO, then the NCPCR has to be informed by email



 on 23-May-2021 12:21 AM
sir in my judgement your better than shubra ranjan mam particularly in general studies

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13-May-2021 12:27 PM

A bullet train to hunger

This article talks about expanding social security nets so that we can save the people from starvation and malnutrition. Whatever we have achieved as per NFHS-4 will be drained if we fail to provide nutritious foodgrains. This time it is not about poor in rural areas but also in urban India. This has been revealed by WB report 'Poverty and shared prosperity". 

Points in today's article:- 

1. The  "State of working India report" 2021 by Azim Premji shows people are moving from formal to informal work.( No need to remember so many data)

2. Poverty rates in rural areas have increased by 15 percentage points  and in urban area by 20 percentage points.

3. The condition are more worse when we look into the poverty data by caste, religion. 58% of elder people and 56% of single women household went on bed without meal.

Two important laws are there for providing social security net:-

1. National food security act provides 5 kg of food grains to 75% in rural areas and 50% in urban areas. An additional entitlement of 5 kg of food grains per individual and 1 kg of pulses  per household is also provided under Antyodaya Anna Yojna.


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13-May-2021 12:25 PM

Protecting Prisoners

This article is about overcrowded jails where the spread of covid is more severe. Prisoners are testing positive but medical treatment is not available. 

But the question is why jails are overcrowded??


1. Undertrial:- SC has asked to adhere section 436a of crpc and release all the Undertrial who has completed half of the maximum prison term for an offence on personal bond. Ex:- For offence if the jail term is 10 year and he has completed 5 years but his trial has not been completed, then he should be released.

2. Unnecessary arrest:- In this context SC has said, in Arnesh kumar vs state of Bihar:- Police should not make unnecessary arrest  in the cases that involve less than 7 year of jail.

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11-May-2021 10:40 AM


This video explains the Maratha reservation, asking five different questions to understand the topic comprehensively. • Reason for the Demand of Reservation? • What has been the SC Directives on Reservation? • Why has the Bombay HC upheld the Maratha Reservation? • Why has the SC Quashed the Bombay HC Verdict? • Role of NCBC?

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11-May-2021 10:37 AM

Vulnerable Children

God and human both has lost empathy for the children who has lost their parents. What human is doing that there is a rise of trafficking, and fake adoption of child and then selling them in and outside the country.

Thus in this regard, it is important to know about Central adoption resource authority.

1. Central Adoption Resource Authority (CARA) is a statutory body of Ministry of Women & Child Development, Government of India. It functions as the nodal body for adoption of Indian children and is mandated to monitor and regulate in-country and inter-country adoptions.

2. CARA is designated as the Central Authority to deal with inter-country adoptions in accordance with the provisions of the Hague Convention on Inter-country Adoption, 1993, ratified by Government of India in 2003.

3. CARA primarily deals with adoption of orphan, abandoned and surrendered children through its associated/ recognised adoption agencies.

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11-May-2021 10:34 AM

Decoding Inequality in a Digital world

This article is talking about rising inequality in the terms of access to technology. In the time of CoVID, health and education has been shifted to online platform but access to the digital benefits is limited. 

There are many reports like from NCERT, Azim Premji, ASER that suggest approx 27-60%( different report presents different percentage)  of the students does not have access to online education and reasons are:-

1. Inability to buy of data packs 

2. Lack of devices.

3. Devices shared between siblings and parents.

Besides this, many lack a learning environment at home as 25% of Indians lives in a single room dwelling as per NSSO data of 2017.

If I talk about health, again the same condition prevails:- 

1. Who has a access to  the app like Practo, 1 mg :- only who are digitally literate.

2. Even the registration for vaccines on CoWin app is possible for those having computer, smart phone.

3. Another issue raised by the author is     privacy issue. When the government is created centralised database by accumulating our data, and in the lack of digital privacy law, this data is going to be in the hands of private entities.

We need to understand that unless we don't make expenditure on basic health infrastructure like beds, doctor, ventilator, this Arogya app, Aadhar is of no use. Creating digital health id will help only when we have basic infrastructure. Secondly patients interoperability can and should  be achieved by decentralising digital storage like in France and Taiwan not be centralised database like in India.

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08-May-2021 10:58 AM

SC Declines plea to restraint Press

...This article is talking about two things:-

1. Freedom of press.

2. Support the people's right to know what is happening in the judicial proceedings.

I am adding third thing:- Will talk about scope of Freedom of Press

What has been the observation of court regarding press??


The court declined a plea of ECI to restrain media from talking about ECI. Actually Madras High court has said ECI should be charged with "murder", which is in every print and electronic news. 

The court has said except child sexual abuse and marital cases, press can highlight the judicial proceedings and what the lawyer and judges said in the court.

Citizen has every right to know about the arguments addressed and response of defendant and it comes under citizen "Right to know".

The gujrat high court has recently introduced live streaming of proceedings which is applauded by Madras HC also. One can make counter  argument  also on this

Freedom of Press includes freedom of publication, freedom of circulation and freedom against pre-censorship.

Freedom of speech include right to propagate one'sviews through print media or any other communication channel e.g radio, television subject to reasonable restrictions imposed under Article 19(2).

In Romesh Thapar case, SC has said Freedom of Press is a part of Article 19.

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08-May-2021 10:50 AM


This is just a case study which can be used in exam. 

But , What is digital divide??

Ans:- It refers to a gap between different age groups, different geography , different economic and social conditions in terms of access of digital technologies. Small example:- In rural areas, women are using mobile phone which the male member has left and not the new smart mobile phone for the women.

Impact of digital divide:-

1. Economy:- World bank report says India's gdp can increase by 1-2% by bridging this digital divide.

2. Education:- It impacts access of quality education in rural areas, thus inequity is bound to rise.

3. Social spheres:- People using digital infra has good social networking, relationship across the borders which helps them in all round development.

Some of the digital divide project:- 


1.  Internet.org:- through this people can access web pages on health, job information in Asia, Africa latin america

2.  Linux 4 Africa:- collects computer in Germany fir Africa.

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28-Apr-2021 10:42 AM

No Country for women (Indian express)

 Patriarchy is still prevalent in India.

2. Women is doing 10 times more work than man but unpaid one.

3. While women literacy has increased,only 37 % complete class 10.

4. Women do nt have economic freedom, so subjected to domestic violence.

5. NCRB data counts 88 rapes daily.

Case study: Rawanda known for genocide and rapes in 1994 and now 2/3 rd women are in parliament after the enactment of Constitution in 2003.

So why India can't do??

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26-Apr-2021 10:11 AM

A case for Judicial Federalism (THE HINDU)

Very abstract Article, author does not know what he/ she wants to convey.

Crux is:- The court can not do much in health crisis, it can just enforce accountability of the executive in case of shortage of oxygen, lab testing etc. 

The apex court has asked the govt to present national plan on CoVID management and can transfer the CoVID related  cases of different HC to SC as per power under article 139 A.

But it is important to know the concept of Judicial Federalism??


You need to understand the structure of the court in US and India.

US:-  The structure is called as federal court system.

Judicial federalism means seperation of judicial authority between federal court and state courts.Typically, federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction in matters of federal law while state courts have exclusive jurisdiction in matters of state law. This is judicial federalism.

So what is federal court?


Federal courts are courts of limited jurisdiction, meaning they can only hear cases authorized by the United States Constitution or federal statutes. The federal district court is the starting point for any case arising under federal statutes, the Constitution, or treaties.

Now look into the structure

The federal court system has three main levels: district courts (the trial court), circuit courts which are the first level of appeal, and the Supreme Court of the United States, the final level of appeal in the federal system. 

So basically in US, there are two things:-

1. Federal court system which starts from district court then first appeal to circuit court then second appeal to SC.

2. State court :- looks into cases of different state.

What are federal laws?

Ans:- Federal laws are passed by Congress and signed by the President. The judicial branch decides the constitutionality of federal laws and resolves other disputes about federal laws. 

Now look into the structure of Indian court:-

 SC---------HC----------- District court.

There is no any federal system, there is integrated judiciary where judicial federalism like in us cannot be felt. Here the SC has power to transfer the case from HC under article 139 A.

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24-Apr-2021 11:09 AM

Arise and Rejuvenate the local self government

This article is written by Kamal Hasan, no substance but good examples by comparing TN and Kerala. So we will focus on this aspect only and can be used as a case study in answer.

"The voice of the people is the voice of God, the voice of the panchayat is the voice of the people".

We all know the Gram Sabha is the basis foundational structure of the local body pyramid. But gram SabhA has not been empowered even after 27 years of its inception.

Tamilnadu:- Gram Sabha have become more like auction houses in TN. It means gram sabha meetings are forged and manipulated by the attendees of the meeting  with the vested interest. Secondly the election in TN has been postponed which is against the Constitution as article 243(E) says that duration of the panchayat is 5 years and election must happen six months prior to the expiry of the term of the panchayat.


In Kerala, Local Self-Government Institutions have been meaningfully empowered through massive transfer of resources as well as administrative powers. Local self-government Institutions have emerged as effective agencies for the implementation of developmental programmes. Developmental programmes are identified and implemented through Grama Sabhas.

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24-Apr-2021 11:08 AM


This article is about the debate on judiciary in the constituent assembly with regard to the independent working wIthout fear from executive. The author tries to say that the credibility of the court has been questioned in recent past. So it is now the duty of the new CJI to be sworn on 24th April to uphold the oath in spirit.

so basically question can be :- Critically examine the working of SC, Though UPSC will never ask explicit question but can be asked in any other way.

Debate in Constituent Assembly:- 

KT SHAH:- He was against Separation of powers between judiciary and executive.

SL SAXENA:- Was supporting Seperation of Power

BR AMBEDKAR:-  The judiciary is engaged in deciding the issue between citizens and very rarely between citizens and the Government. Consequently, the chances of influencing the conduct of a member of the judiciary by the Government are very remote.

But the great man Ambedkar can be wrong :-

1. As per the present scenerio where some political cases are being sent to the particlualr benches.

2. The SC is expected to seek strict accountability from the legislature and executive and any infraction of the Constitution and laws must be corrected. Yet, this is not happening.

So it is expected that the new CJI will uphold the oath.

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23-Apr-2021 10:37 AM


This article is about the controversy related to eligibility to become the member of NGT.

Actually want happened IAS officer has appointed as a Member of NGT which has been challenged in the court.

But try to understand if you will read the eligibility conditions of being NGT members, then

1. 15 years of experience in environmental matters after completing masters or doctrate.

2. Administrative experience of 5 years in environmental issue.

A candidate needs to fulfill only one out of these two.

IAS officer is fulfilling second criteria, ao there should not be an issue.

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22-Apr-2021 09:45 AM

The last word on State and Temples

This article is about the recent call in Tamil Nadu to free Hindu temples from state control. I am not going into politics, but will present Constitutional guarantee and SC pronouncement related to management of the temple.

Proponents of movement to free temple:- 

1. This is our right under article 25 to profess and practice and propogate religion. Also under article 26 grants every religious denomination to manage its own affairs.

2. Why the religious places of the other community are not under State control.

Ans to first question:-

1. The article 25 is not absolute. The State has every right to intervene in secular sphere of the religion. Article 25 only protects those rights which is essential practice to the religion.

Ans to the second question:-

The government exercises supervisory control over management of the properties of waqf.

Secondly SC in dargah case , has clarified that women can enter into mosque for offering namaz.

Conclusion:- All the religious institution of all the communities without any exceptions,  if mismanaged and working against Constitutional provision of article 14 and 21 must be brought under government control.

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22-Apr-2021 09:44 AM

Strenghtening the process of choosing Police head

his article is about the need of Police reforms especially in the context of appointment, removal and transfer of police chief. The article is beacuse of recent Mumbai crisis where police chief has been removed and it signifies unregulated power of the government to decide who will be the chief..

So we will look into what is the arrangement for all these:-

1. The National Police Commission and Prakash Singh directive has recommended for setting State Security Commission  which should include members of the government, lop, members of civil society.

2. 26 states and UT has established SSC but:-

A. Some does not include LoP.

B. Others does not include independent members.

C. In 23 States, government still retain the sole discretion of appointing the police chief.

3. There is no specific parameters to decide on appointment of police chief except the tenure of the service.


1. Objective criteria is to be set up based on length of service, service records, range of experience and performance appraisal.

2. The National Police Commission has required State government to seek the removal of the SSC before removing police chief. This has not been followed.

TP Senkumar VS UOI:- SC said there must be compelling reason based on material facts before removing police chief. Satisfaction of the government is not sufficient ground to remove police chief

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22-Apr-2021 09:44 AM


This article is about the growing role of Data in framing Foreign policy today. The might of millitary power and advantages that industrial revolution gave was with western power, but in 21 st century Data will decide "Dada"( mightiness)  of the world. 

In this context, Can we say that:-

1. World has been divided because the, axis of power has been shifted towards Asia, rather than assertive china??

2. Is US really  protecting multilateral rules that it has set or protecting it's hegemony in disguise of being protector of rules. This statement becomes relevant when it says China is assertive. So actually If US is fearful of loosing hegemony or really wants to protect multilateral rules.

Now coming to the evidence of strength of Data of Asian country:- 

1. China had a $53 trillion mobile payments market and India's UPI is going to cross $1 trillion by 2025 but in US total volume of Mobile payment is less than $100 billion.

2. China's digital technology led capitalism is moving fast that is shaking dollar.


1. Because of nature and pervasiveness of digital media, millitary and civilian systems are symbolic.

2. There is a replacement of global rules and every country is making its own rules like Australia, Europe relating to data protection..

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22-Apr-2021 08:50 AM

World Press Freedom Index released

World Press Freedom index has been released by Reporters without borders:-

1. This is a NGO from France.

2. India's Rank is 142.

3. Important:- Rank is not steadily decreasing, it was 142 in 2020,140 in 2019 and 138 in 2018.

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21-Apr-2021 09:11 AM

The long battle against Maoist

What is the tactics of the Maoists??


1. To spread misinformation about the numbers and location on the ground before attack.

2. They usually take the advantage of lack of intelligence and planning on the part of the government.

Second question is:- 

What will work:- Development or Security???

Ans:- Andhra Pradesh Srikakulam District where dedicated leadership of the civil servants has brought the fruits of development, but this is perhaps an exception.

If we look into security parameters, then again operation Greyhound was very effective in Andhra Pradesh. So a mix of both worked in Andhra itself.

Suggestions:- Try to bring local youth in security forces or in development processes is important. Alongwith we need to focus on making our  surrender policy remunerative and more attractive.

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21-Apr-2021 09:10 AM

Continuous and comprehensive evaluation

Karantaka government will promote the students to the higher classes based on continuous and comprehensive evaluation. I want to add that this system has been mentioned in RTE act also.

So we will understand what is this ??


According to this scheme, the term continuous’ is meant to accentuate that evaluation of identified aspects of students’ growth and development’ is a continuous process rather than an incident, built into the total teaching-learning process and spread over the whole duration of the academic session.

The second term comprehensive’ means that the scheme tries to cover both the scholastic and the co-scholastic aspects of students’ growth and development.

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20-Apr-2021 12:57 PM


Why there is an issue with Aadhar?


The issue is a larger one, actually  government has cancelled approx 2.076 ration card since 2017 because they were not linked to aadhar. But never tried to find out the reason for this non linkages;


1. Poor people does not know what to do, where to go, how to rectify incorrect details on aadhar card. Incorrect details on aadhar does not matched to ration card details.

2. There is no verification before cancellation.

3. Lost of cancelled ration card is not in public domain, neither there is grievance redressal for this 

4. Sometimes biometric authentication glitches also results in non linking of Aadhar with ration card.

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20-Apr-2021 12:24 PM

The ordinance route is bad, repromulgation is worse

Context:- Government has repromulgated the ordinance that establishes a commission for air quality management.

So we need to understand the issue of ordinance in detail.Power of Governor:- Article 213 states that Governor can Promulgate Ordinance when following conditions meet:-

1. The State Legislature should not be in session.

2. Circumstances should exist for promulgation

3. These circumstances must compel for immediate action.

Debate in Constituent Assembly:- B.R. Ambedkar, who stated that ordinance-making powers were necessary since existing law might be deficient to deal with a situation “which may suddenly and immediately arise”. According to him, it was necessary to “…confer upon the President the power to promulgate a law which will enable the executive to deal with that particular situation because it cannot resort to the ordinary process of law…” when the legislature was not in session.

What is the significance of Ordinance?


1. Emergent Situation:- Pocso Amendment after Kathua Rape case, Criminal amendment after Nirbhaya

2. Policy Paralysis:-

3. Disruption in House:-

4. President is not a Rubber Stamp:-

What are the issues around Ordinance?


1. Infringement of principle of separation of powers: The power of the executive to issue ordinances goes against the principle of separation of powers as lawmaking is the domain of legislature.

2. The satisfaction of the President: Some ordinances that were meant to smoothen legal hurdles caused by existing laws but whether there is an emergent condition or not is unclear. These included the Enemy Property (Amend-ment and Validation) Ordinance, 2016; Indian Medical Council (Amendment) Ordinance, 2016; Citizenship (Amend-ment) Ordinance, 2015; Coal Mines (Special Provisions) Ordinance, 2014, etc.

3. Deliberate bypassing of the legislature:- The Electricity Regulatory Commissions Ordinance was promulgated in 1998, for rationalising electricity tariffs (meaning hiking tariffs) when the government found it difficult to pass the concerned Bill in the legislature.Same condition was with TRAI.


SC Judgements:-

1. Krishan Kumar Singh vs State of Bihar:- The Supreme Court had already declared in 1986, in D.C. Wadhwa, that repeated re-promulgation of ordinances was unconstitutional. Now, in Krishna Kumar Singh v. State of Bihar, it goes deeper and concludes that the failure to place an ordinance before the legislature constitutes abuse of power and a fraud on the Constitution.

The judgment widens the scope of judicial review of ordinances. The court can go into whether the President or Governor had any material to arrive at the satisfaction that an ordinance was necessary and to examine whether there was any oblique motive.

2. R C Cooper Case:- SC  held that the President’s decision could be challenged on the grounds that ‘immediate action’ was not required; and the Ordinance had been passed primarily to by-pass debate and discussion in the legislature

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20-Apr-2021 12:22 PM

Sharing the burdened care

Context:- There has been a consistent failure in india to prevent the spread of CoVID-19 pandemic. People are not aware about where to access knowledge and technology required to check the virus and also availability of these technologies is not adequate.

What are the possibilities then?


1. Reactive approach:- This is done by transforming tertiary level hospital like Gangaram into CoVID care which is being done by the state government. But the issue is normal opd facilities is at Hault. At primary level, buildings are being hired and open spaces are being converted into CoVID treatment centres.

2. The second possibility is to convert secondary level health infrastructure like community health centre district hospital into exclusive CoVID care. Community health centre should function as first referral point  but it is grossly under developed.

What is community health centre??

Ans:- As per minimum norms, a CHC is required to be manned by four medical specialists i.e. surgeon, physician, gynecologist and pediatrician supported by 21 paramedical and other staff. It has 30 in-door beds with one OT, X-ray, labour room and laboratory facilities.

It serves as a referral centre for 4 PHCs and also provides facilities for obstetric care and specialist consultations.

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19-Apr-2021 09:36 AM


This article is about Intellectual property appellate board which is in the condition of demise now. Then the question is :- Why to read this?? 

Beacuse it can be used as a case study in any questions coming on Tribunal:-

Issues with IPAB :-

1. Unwanted child;- Central government notified it's functioning in 2007 after Madras HC annoyed to the government for not notifying.

2. Understaffed and Underpowered:- It has been headless( no chairperson) for 2 years from 2016-2018.

3. Technical issue:- Technical members to look into patent cases has not been appointed till 2020.

4. Infrastructural issue:- counsel argues the case using flashlight of the phone. ( Power cut).

5. Over burdened:- IPAB needs to sit in five cities with just one chairperson flying here and there.

6. Workload was more focused on Trademarks only.

7. Slow disposal of case:- Nearly 70% of the cases were in pending stage.

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19-Apr-2021 09:34 AM


This article is talking about How the unlimited powers of ECI can create havoc by supporting any particular ideology of a specific political party. Though I don't agree completely with this because even today ECI has not been granted explicit power to exercise, every time it is limited by the law and Constitution..

Now coming to the analysis

Actually TN Seshan is a man behind the efficient functioning of ECI , he has read the Article 324 in a way that Constitutional duty of free and fair election can be ensured in a better way. Every time he tried to locate article 324 in a way that grants ECI a feeling of having Constitutional power.

He became confident when SC in Mohinder Singh gill vs chief election commissioner said:- EC can take all necessary actions to achieve the Constitutional duty mentioned under article 324.

But the author is telling article 324 does not contain following things:-

1. Transfer of state government officials under the exercise of general power of article 324 as transfer is exclusive jurisdiction of the government to be regulated as mentioned in article 309.

2. Another point raised by the author that Can ECI under article 324 stop the distribution, if the state government is distributing food material in the time of pandemic. Author says SC in suhramaniam balaji vs TN held that distribution of tv, cycle goats is in the nature of welfare measures. Then how food distribution is also  a welfare measure, where ECI should not stop it.

( This happens when you read the content, not the context of the cases or of you want to read as per your interpretation) SC has clearly said in this particular case that freebies cannot be allowed it disturbs free and fair election which the author is hiding)

Second point in the article is  related to Model code of conduct:- It should be made legally enforceable or not..

ECI is against the legal enforceability of the MCC because it will increase litigation and delay the election. Author supports ECI view's here , but he also says then the  question about the enforceability of MCC will remain unresolved. This is true, then my point is Don't you think se onus must lie on political parties and we the citizens of India also. 

(As I believe, Law can set the boundary,...morality rationality and logical understanding is the only panacea along with the law to ensure free and fair election )

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17-Apr-2021 08:34 AM


Context:- UK Home department has approved the extradition of Nirav Modi.

What is Extradition?

Ans:- Extradition is the delivery on the part of one State to another of those whom it is desired to deal with for crimes of which they have been accused or convicted and are justifiable in the Courts of the other State.

Is there any law related to Extradition?

Ans:- In India, the extradition of a fugitive criminal is governed under the Indian Extradition Act, 1962.

Who is the authority to decide on extradition??

Ans:- The Consular, Passport & Visa (CPV) Division, Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India is the Central/Nodal Authority that administers the Extradition Act and it processes incoming and outgoing Extradition Requests.

Extradition can not be carried if there is no treaty with the country.

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17-Apr-2021 01:19 AM

United Nation Population fund

The report United Nation Population fund has been released with a title:-" My Body is My Own". This is very important because for the first time , report has focused on bodily autonomy of the Women and has defined it. However SC in Puttaswamy case has also emphasized on it.

What is bodily autonomy??

Ans:- Power to make choice about the body like using contravention, when to conceive, should rest with women.

Example of violation of bodily autonomy:-

Child marriage, genital mutilation

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17-Apr-2021 01:16 AM

Relaxation of Norms for OCI

Home ministry has relaxed the guidelines for OCI holder. The relaxation is in the term of:-

1. They are not required to register for  a new OCI card every time when  their passport is issued.

2.If a person has obtained OCI card before 20 years of age, then only fresh registration is required after attaining  20 years of his age because biological make up changes. But oci card obtained after 20 years of age, no need of fresh registration.

But the  important question is who is OCI??

Ans;-The following categories of persons (except Pakistan and Bangladesh)  are eligible to apply under OCI scheme:

1. Who is a citizen of another country, but was a citizen of India at the time of, or at any time after, the commencement of the constitution.

2. Who is a citizen of another country, but was eligible to become a citizen of India at the time of the commencement of the constitution.

3. Who is a citizen of another country, but belonged to a territory that became part of India after the 15th day of August, 1947.

4. Who is a child or a grand-child or a great grandchild of such a citizen.              


A person, who is minor child of a person mentioned above (1-4)


A person, who is a minor child, and whose both parents are citizens of India or one of the parents is a citizen of India.


Spouse of foreign origin of a citizen of India or spouse of foreign origin of an Overseas Citizen of india Cardholder registered under section 7A, Citizenship Act 1955 and whose marriage has been registered.

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08-Apr-2021 12:32 PM


This article is about recognition of law for transgender in the terms of rising opportunities for their employment. Ex:-  Transgender have been recruited to Chattisgarh police ++ Kerala HC has paved the way for their entry in NCC..

Why all this is happening??

It is because of new law:-  Transgender Person ( Protection of Right act) 2019.  This law is in congruence with Yogyakarta principles , UDHR 1948 and ICCPR 1966.

IN Nalsa VS UIO:- SC recognised transgender as a third gender and ruled for their right to decide their self identified gender.


Who are Transgender?

Ans:- A transgender person is one whose gender does not match the gender of a person assigned at birth. Trans-men and trans-women, persons with intersex variations, gender-queers, and persons with socio-cultural identities, such as kinnar and hijra.

On what grounds a transgender person can’t be discriminated from others?

No person or establishment shall discriminate against a transgender person, including denial of service or unfair treatment in relation to:

1. Education,Employment or occupation, Healthcare

2. Access to, or enjoyment of goods and services, facilities, or opportunity which is made available to the general public

3. Right to movement

4. Right to reside, rent, or otherwise occupy the property,

5. Opportunity to stand for or hold public or private office

6. Access to a government or private establishment in whose care or custody a transgender person is.

Can a transgender person apply for a certificate of identity?

A transgender person can apply for a certificate of identity by writing an application to the District Magistrate for issuing a certificate of identity as a transgender person,

Can a transgender person undergo surgery to change gender either as male or female?

If a transgender person undergoes surgery to change gender either as a male or female, such person has to make an application, besides a certificate issued by the Medical Superintendent or Chief Medical Officer of the medical institution in which that person has undergone surgery. The application along with the certificate issued is presented to the District Magistrate for a revised certificate.

What is National council for Transgender persons?

NCT stands for National Council for Transgender persons. It was set up with the purpose to advise the central government on policies, and legislation related to transgender persons. 

The NCT consist of representatives from:

1. Ministries such as social justice and empowerment, health, minority affairs,

2. NITI Aayog,

3. National Human Rights Commission and National Commission for Women

State governments

4. Nominated members from the transgender community; and

5. Experts from non-governmental organizations.

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08-Apr-2021 12:31 PM


What is Lok adalat?

Ans:- Alternative system of dispute resolution.

Why Lok Adalat?


1. Speedy justice as it does not follow indian evidence act and code of civil procedure.

2. Free justice as per article 39A.

3. Pilling of cases in the court, so lok adalat.

4. Maintenance of Cordial Relationships:- The main thrust of Lok Adalats is on compromise between parties

What has been its performance?


1. The number of cases disposed by the lok adalt is increasing year on year.

2. In 2020, A total number of 8152 Benches were constituted by 31 SLSAs to conduct the National Lok Adalat. It was successful in disposing of 10,42,816 cases. Out of the total cases disposed of 5,60,310cases were at the pre-litigation stage and 4,82,506 cases were those which were pending in the courts.

3. In a first of its kind in the country, the Delhi State Legal Services Authority (DSLSA) recently organized the e-lok Adalat to facilitate mediation between the parties, who are willing to get their matters settled amicably, in all the District Courts Complexes of Delhi.


1. A major drawback of the Lok Adalats is that if the parties do not arrive at any compromise or settlement, the case is either returned to the court of law or the parties are advised to seek a remedy in a court of law. This causes unnecessary delay in the dispensation of justice.

2. Justice hurried is justice burried.

3. Compromise are imposed on poor if the other party have deep pockets like insurance companies.

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07-Apr-2021 11:21 AM

Draft national policy on Migrants


1. Creation of a nodal agency: NITI Aayog has recommended the creation of a nodal Ministry. The Ministry of Labour and Employment must be the nodal agency which must create a special unit to help converge the activities of other Ministries. 

2. Create Migration Resource Centres (MRCs): NITI Aayog has recommended creating Migration Resource Centres in high migration zones, creation of National Labour helpline, interstate migration management bodies which must be coordinated by a special unit. 

3. Identification of Migration Corridors: The states where the migration happens must be regulated both at source and destination 

4. The role of Panchayats would be crucial in providing the rights to the labourers who have migrated. The Panchayat must issue the workers with ID Cards, passbooks, training, placements etc.

5. Stem Migration:The states have been asked to raise the minimum wages to bring a major shift in the migration pattern and thus stem migration. In this the Community Building Organizations or CBOs and administrative staff has been asked to control the push factors. 

6. The draft has called to create a central database to help the employers to fill the gap between demand and supply and to ensure the benefits of various social welfare schemes reaches everyone. 

7. The Aayog has also asked the National Legal Services Authority and the Ministry of Labour to set up Grievance Handling Cells and fastrack the response systems for human trafficking, minimum wage violations and abuses at workplace for migrants.

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07-Apr-2021 10:43 AM


This article is related to cyber attack, but it gives a very different dimensions:- Are these cyber criminal a combatant, which has been defined in International convention.

Actually the issue is they are invisible, so don't fit to the definition of combatant or regular force ,which has been defined by Hague convention.

First of all we will understand who are combatants?


1. Force should have emblem which should be visible from distance.

2. It must carry arms openly.

3. It should be headed by person responsible for subordinate.

According to this definition, cyber attackers don't fit into the definition.


1. Cyber warrior don't carry arms openly.

2. Their arms are malicious software which is invisible

3.  Source of attack is lone software.

So it raise two questions:-

1. If the nation like China is employing people to attack another country, will it be violation of laws of war or not?

2. How the country will counter attack in self defence as they are not combatants as per international definition.

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06-Apr-2021 10:44 AM


The article is about the importance of virtual hearings, started in SC amidst Pandemic.

How virtual hearing is helpful and why it was needed??

Ans:- Even in the debate in Constituent assembly, It was discussed that how the fair and equality in justice can be achieved.

 And more interestingly they have talked about geographic location of SC. It means the people near to Delhi can go to SC easily but what about others..

Also it has been noted that the state having more population like WVB, Bihar, Andhra contributes less than 10% of total cases in Apex court. The people on these states have actually consider HC as a last panacea. 

It is also important to understand that CJI can hold sittings of SC through circuit Bench, but it never happens.

So virtual hearing is a panacea

What are the issues with virtual court/hearing? 


1. The present infrastructure does not support virtual court proceeding

2. Most of the  lawyers, particularly in district courts, do not have any laptop or computer.

3. All judges are not able to undertake virtual hearings due to lack of experience.

4. Virtual court hearings, especially during peak hours are subject to frequent crashes of the system.

5.  There  can be issue of the privacy of data as well as the confidentiality of court proceedings, due to the usage of third-party software applications, which are prone to hacking and manipulation.

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06-Apr-2021 10:43 AM

The Pillars of Equitable Post Covid India

This article is talking about rising inequalities in the time of pandemic and also suggests measures to check inequalities:-

Evidence of inequality:-

1. According to Pew research report, India's middle class has shrunk by third due to the novel corona virus pandemic while the number of people earning less than 150 rs per day is going to be doubled. This has been supported by world bank, IMF, ILO etc.

What to do!?

Three pronged strategy:-

1. Focus on employment and wages.

2. Creation of human development

3. Quasi Universal basic income and other safety nets.

How to increase employment?

Ans:- Focus should be on investment in infrastructure including construction.

Challenges in employment

1. Correcting the mismatch between demand and supply.

2. Creating productive jobs

3. Focus on manufacturing is less.

How to focus human development?


Increase expenditure on health and education.

How to ensure safety nets and Quasi universal basic income?


1. Cash transfer to women above the age of 20

2. Expanding the number of working days under MGNREGA.

3. Increase farmers income especially of small and marginal farmers.

???? Enhancing tax and non tax revenues of the government is needed to spend on the above priorities..

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03-Apr-2021 11:12 AM


Everybody knows RTE was implemented by 86th Constitutional amendment when SC in Mohini jain case has declared right to education as a part of right to life..

Then what is the issue

1. The article says minority schools are unnecessarily exempted that defeats the purpose of right to education. This is also against SC directives in TM Pai and inamdar case case where court said minority and non minority should not be treated differently.

2. Such kind of exemption is against article 14 and also economically unviable for many private school.

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03-Apr-2021 11:11 AM

Policy on Rare Disease

Rare disease:- A rare disease is any disease that affects a small percentage of the population. In some parts of the world, an Orphan diseaseis a rare disease whose rarity means there is a lack of a market large enough to gain support and resources for discovering treatments 

Rare disease policy

1. The policy proposes establishment of alternate funding of rare diseases through voluntary crowd funding and corporate funding.

2.  It also seeks to provide assistance for patients needing one-time treatment for rare diseases increased to Rs 20 lakh from Rs 15 lakh. 

 3. Assistance to be provided under the Rashtriya Arogaya Yojana.

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01-Apr-2021 10:27 AM


Amendment to NCT of Delhi Act:- 

1. It provides that the Rules made by the Delhi Legislative Assembly to regulate the procedure and conduct of business in the Assembly must be consistent with the Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business in the Lok Sabha.

2. The amendment also prohibits the Legislative Assembly from making any rule to enable itself or its Committees to: (i) consider the matters of day-to-day administration of the NCT of Delhi and (ii) conduct any inquiry in relation to administrative decisions. Further, any provision in force having the above said effect will be void.

3. Further, the act provides that the opinion of the LG must be obtained before taking any executive action on decisions of Delhi Government, on such matters as may be specified by the LG.

In this context, Lt governor has asked the speaker  to return the Netaji subhash amendment bill to the floor of the house. But the question is why??

It is because the definition of the term "Government" in the Netaji subhash amendment bill is Government of NCT Delhi, now the government means "Lt governor of NCT Delhi appointed by the President".

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01-Apr-2021 10:26 AM


India has withdrawn MFN (Most Favoured Nation) status to Pakistan after the Pulwama incident. Upon withdrawal, basic customs duty on all goods exported from Pakistan to India has been raised to 200% with immediate effect.

But the narrative at that time was, bilateral trade between India and Pakistan was too small for its suspension to have any significant impact on the two countries’ national economies. For context, as per 2018-19 data, Pakistan’s exports to India accounted for 2% of its total exports, and 3% of its imports came from India. For India, its exports to and imports from Pakistan were 0.63% and 0.10% of its total exports and imports.


However, It is estimated that more than 50,000 people in Amritsar, and about 25,000 people in Uri and Poonch, were directly affected because of their breadwinners’ dependence on bilateral trade.

A 2018 World Bank study estimated the trade potential at $37 billion. So the revival of talks benefit the people at the large across the borders.

Whas does it signify?

Ans:- In todays world economic cooperation has the potential to reset the relation to some extent in case of pakistan and to a larger extent in case of other country where non zero sum game is not involved.

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01-Apr-2021 10:25 AM


Assam Rifles is a Central Paramilitary Force under the Central Armed Police Forces.

2. It came into being in 1835, as a militia called the ‘Cachar Levy’, to primarily protect British Tea estates and their settlements against tribal raids.

3. It served in both the World Wars.

4. The administrative control of Assam Rifles lies with the Home Ministry, while the operational control is with the Defence Ministry.

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11-Mar-2021 11:41 AM


This article is about change in India's strategy towards northern neighbour- china and Pak.

India has adopted "Proactive Diplomacy" with strong ground posturing  which is working well now.

Evidence of this policy

1. China after the Dokalam incident, once again has to withdraw it's forces from LAC. Earlier what happened, india has to retreat and it is also alleged that India was forced to dismantle some of the structure as a part of resolution process when China enchroched Despang valley in 2013.

2. In case of Pakistan also, Director general of millitary operation of India and Pakistan agreed to implement ceasefire agreement of 2003 again on Feb 22, 2020.

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10-Mar-2021 12:10 PM


This article is full of instances and facts, You need to understand the crux of the article:- Patriarchal Mindset of judiciary.

According to Thomson Reuters  foundation, India is the most dangerous country for the women,( but this is not a reality)

Why it is said so??

Context:- CJI has asked the rape accused to marry the victim. 

Try to understand that in rape case, parties are not allowed to enter into compromise. But this is not the first Instance that judges has made such remark which is injustice to gender justice.


1. In famous Bhanwari case, the court has said that old man cannot rape . Such a bizzare statements.

2. Madras HC :- Divorcees should maintain sexual purity to claim alimony.

We should understand one thing:- 

Rape should not be viewed as an infringement of a women's chastity or virginity but a violation of bodily integrity and sexual autonomy.

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10-Mar-2021 12:09 PM


The matter is related to vacancy in the premier organisation taking care of internal and external security threats. EX:-

1. CBI:- There is no regular Director of cbi this time, which has been challenged by NGO Common cause earlier also in the court.

2. BSF:- Headed by the Director general but he has the additional charge of NCB  also, which canny be justified for such a important organisation.

3. NSG:- it is without a regular Director for nearly six months.

4. Bureau of police research and development:- it is also functioning without a regular DG.

Conclusion:-  The govt should announce the chief of these organisations atleast 3 months in advance with a minimum of tenure of two years or till superanuation.

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10-Mar-2021 12:08 PM


SC has asked the centre in 2011 in "Lafarge mining case" to set up environmental regulator to oversee green clearances. And the regulator should have power to impose penalties, enforce environmental conditions for approval.

But the question which can come in exam'- 

Can regulator solve all the problems?? 

You should be aware about the role of regulator in general.

How to empower our Regulatory Bodies?


1. Regulation only when necessary:- It is, therefore, necessary to have a detailed scrutiny of all laws and regulations – Union, State and Local – followed by repeal of unnecessary regulations, updation of outdated ones and simplification of the procedures so that compliance becomes easy.

2. Regulatory procedures to be simple, transparent and citizen friendly:- There should be systemic reforms so as to minimize the scope for corruption. These include simplifying transactions, using IT, promoting transparency, reducing discretion, effective supervision etc.

3. The tenure of the Chairman and Board Members could also be made uniform, preferably three years or 65 years of age, whichever is earlier. 

4. The appointment of the Chairman and Board Members for all such regulatory authorities should be done by the Union/State Governments after an initial screening and recommendation of a panel of names by a Selection Committee.

5. In addition to the statutory framework, which underpins the interface between the government and the regulator, each Ministry/Department should evolve a ‘Management Statement’ outlining the objectives and roles of each regulator and the guidelines governing their interaction with the government. This would guide both the government department and the Regulator. 

6.Parliamentary oversight of Regulators:- Annual reports submitted by Regulator to Parliament should include progress on Pre agreed evaluation parameters and should be discussed in Parliamentary Committee.

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06-Mar-2021 10:42 AM


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06-Mar-2021 10:37 AM


India has launched the satelite of another country from its own coast, but this time New space india limited ( Department of Space)  has launched first dedicated commercial satellite Amazonia of Brazil.

Important for prelims

New space india limited:-

NewSpace India Limited (NSIL), incorporated on 6 March 2019 (under the Companies Act, 2013) is a wholly owned Government of India company, under the administrative control of Department of Space (DOS).  NSIL is the commercial arm of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) with the primary responsibility of enabling Indian industries to take up high technology space related activities and is also responsible for promotion and commercial exploitation of the products and services emanating from the Indian space programme.

The role of NSIL would be to build launch vehicles, providing launch services, build satellites, providing space based services, technology transfers, etc.

Indian National Space Promotion and Authorization Center

1. An independent nodal agency under the Department of Space.

2.The decision of IN-SPACe shall be final and binding on all stakeholders including ISRO and private players will not be required to seek separate permission from ISRO.

3. Enourage, promote and hand hold the private sector for their participation in Space Sector. Private players will also be able to use ISRO infrastructure through INSPACe.

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25-Feb-2021 10:05 AM


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25-Feb-2021 09:41 AM


The general rules of criminal justice system  says that Jail is an exception and Bail is the rule. But if someone is charged under UAPA, then it is very difficult to get bail because of section 43D(5) of the UAPA.

SC in 2019 have a ruling that it is nearly impossible to get bail if arrested under UAPA, unless the accused demonstrate that charges against him were prima facia untrue.

But Bombay HC has granted bail to accused in Bhima Koregaon case, keeping in mind that there is a delay in trial which is a ground for granting bail. The court looked on the accused from the angle of Right to life under article 21  also.

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25-Feb-2021 09:40 AM


This article is about that how decentralisation can help in improving social indicators and enhanced developmental outcomes.

Firstly, the article takes the help of different reports to state poor state of human capital.


?? India's rank in human capital  index is 116

?? The National family health survey shows malnutrition indicators are stagnated or declined

?? The National achievement survey and ASER shows poor learning outcomes.

One of the reason for this  is lack of Decentralisation. Globally there has been shift from in the distribution of expenditure and revenue towards sub national government. But India is also on the way for decentralisation, but has not happened property yet.

On the way of Decentralisation

1. Increased share of state in tax devolution as recommended by 14th and 15th FC.

2. Provisions for grants I'm aod to the state under Article 275 and 282.

However there are major issues like:- 

1.There is vertical imbalance where revenue is with centre and major expenditure work is being done by the state.

2. States have not devolved financial power to the panchayat and municipalities.

3. There are issues in the design of centrally sector schemes where only 5 major schemes has a share of more than 60 %of the allocation.

4. The collection of property tax which is a major source of revenue for local self government is very low because of lack of Decentralisation.


1. The centre should refrain from offsetting tax devolution by altering cost sharing ratio of Centrally sponsored schemes and increasing cess.

2. Heavy reliance on CSS should be reduced and tax devolution and grants in aid should be the primary sources of vertical fiscal transfer

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23-Feb-2021 10:45 AM


Sedition laws were enacted in 17th century England when lawmakers believed that only good opinions of the government should survive, as bad opinions were detrimental to the government and monarchy.


1) The constitution of India prescribes reasonable restrictions that can always be imposed on this right in order to ensure its responsible exercise and to ensure that it is equally available to all citizens.

2) It helps to curb secessionist tendencies.

Why sedition law should be repealed?

1. Sedition leads to a sort of unauthorised self-censorship, for it produces a chilling effect on free speech.

2. It suppresses what every citizen ought to do in a democracy — raise questions, debate, disagree and challenge the government's decisions.

3. Sedition systematically destroys the soul of Gandhi’s philosophy that is, right to dissent.

4. Jawaharlal Nehru, in Parliament, clarified that the related penal provision of Section 124A was “highly objectionable and obnoxious and the sooner we get rid of it the better”.

5. Even the UK, where the law originated, has already repealed it.

Important SC Judgement

1. In 1962, the Supreme Court decided on the constitutionality of Section 124A in Kedar Nath Singh v State of Bihar. It upheld the constitutionality of sedition, but limited its application to “acts involving intention or tendency to create disorder, or disturbance of law and order, or incitement to violence”.It distinguished these from “very strong speech” or the use of “vigorous words” strongly critical of the government.

2) In 1995, the Supreme Court, in Balwant Singh v State of Punjab, held that mere sloganeering which evoked no public response did not amount to sedition.

Case Study

1) Recently, a lower court in Bihar directed the filing of an FIR under section 124A (Sedition) of IPC against 49 eminent persons who signed an open letter to the Prime Minister of India expressing concerns over mob lynching

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22-Feb-2021 10:38 AM


What is Dual Education??

Ans:- It is basically an experimental learning where theory and practical are systematically coupled. EX:- EHL school of tourism and hospitality.

?? Basically the essence of dual education is  also mentioned in  our new education policy 

What is the advantage of dual education?


1. Quality of dual education is linked to industry. It helps in access to employment to youth .

2. It responds to social and professional mobility.

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22-Feb-2021 10:37 AM


Context:- The Karnataka prevention of slaughter and preservation of cattle bill was passed by voice vote in legislative council.   

What is voice vote?

Ans:- A voice vote involves the speaker putting a question to the house and then asking the house to put forward its opinion in the forms of ayes (yes) or noes. Based on a rough measure of which side was louder, the speaker decides if the motion was passed or fell through.

The obvious advantage of a voice vote is that it is quick. The apparent disadvantage is that it is inaccurate, given that the speakers decides what the opinion of the house is based on which side is louder. A literal shouting match is not the ideal way to conduct any serious business other than in cases where voting is so one sided, it is basically a formality.

Why voice vote is used?

Ans:- When ruling party has no majority in upper house, it is used by the speaker.

What is Division vote?

Ans:- Parliamentary procedure requires that if a voice vote is challenged by any member, the speaker must ask for a division. This once involved the physical separation of legislators and then a counting of heads – a procedure still followed in the UK. But nowadays in India, this is achieved by getting MPs and MLAs to vote electronically.

The advantage of a division, of course, is that it tells the public exactly what the vote count is. Moreover, it lets constituents know how their MP or MLA voted.

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20-Feb-2021 10:14 AM


Defamation means charging someone for damaging your reputation. Defamation can both be a civil wrong and a criminal offence. The difference between the two lies in the objects they seek to achieve.

A civil wrong tends to provide for a redressal of wrongs by awarding compensation and a criminal law seeks to punish a wrongdoer and send a message to others not to commit such acts.

In Indian laws, criminal defamation has been specifically defined as an offence under the section 499 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC) whereas the civil defamation is based on tort law.

The criticism of the law is it is being used  to silence critics:-

However Madras High Court has held that public servants and constitutional functionaries cannot be allowed to misuse the law of criminal defamation by using the State as a tool to initiate defamation proceedings against adversaries.

But apex court in Subramanian Swamy vs Union of India, 2014, upheld the constitutional validity of the criminal defamation law.

Point of this judgement:-

Individual’s fundamental right to live with dignity and reputation “cannot be ruined solely because another individual  have his freedom to speak anything”.

How we can check the irrational use of this law :-

1. Public servants and constitutional functionaries must be able to face criticism since they owed a solemn duty to the people and State should not use criminal defamation cases to throttle democracy.

2. The trial court  should rely on materials available on record and issue summons to the accused only if they were satisfied that the ingredients required for taking cognisance of a criminal defamation complaint against the State had been made out.

3. Public prosecutor should not exhibit blind eagerness to grasp a conviction and should conduct a case with utmost fairness.

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19-Feb-2021 05:05 PM

Governor's power of "REMISSION "

Context :- Governor declined to grant remission to the convicts of Rajiv Gandhi. Debate is whether he has a power or Not for the same His argument:- 1. The apex court has ruled that in any case of CRPC, remission would require centre's concurrence. 2. The second argument is convicts were tried under central law TADA, not under state law. Counter arguments:- 1.Convicts are tried only under IPC now as apex court has dropped charges under defunct TADA.

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19-Feb-2021 08:57 AM


The article in "THE HINDU" is about 2 things:-

1.  "Right to Protest", and judicial intervention.

2. Need to understand how Protest can be checked democratically

Right to protest and SC:-

1. SC in Saheen bagh case has said the right to protest is not absolute and is subjected to the orders of the authority.

Critical analysis

1. The agitation is continuing because timely judicial solution is not provided.

2. All the protest in the recent past be it anti CAA, farm laws involved legal and constitutional issues requiring immediate and effective adjudication.

3. In the time of Shaheen bagh, the court has mediated between government and protestors, but the duty of the apex court is not to mediate but to give judicial answers.

Need to understand how Protest can be checked democratically

A fair and effective political or judicial step can check the protest.

Example:- Radical green movement in Britain, has been at slower pace when compared with other parts of western Europe, because public enquiry system, integrate the issue in the political system. It means political solution has been provided, so no need to to the court and matter has been solved earliest.

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17-Feb-2021 12:13 PM


This video describes about the recent call by the Government to regulate social media. It also explains the laws and constitutional perspectives involved in the particular issue and makes a case for balancing the rights of the users and the duty of the sovereign.

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17-Feb-2021 11:03 AM


Why there is an increased focus on Telehealth?


1. Beacuse of pandemic the essential services like immunisation, ante natal care, TB Diagnosis has been affected.

2. Also there is a rising inequalities , ie the people living in rural and remote areas were further disadvantaged.

What are the initiative for Telehealth in India??


1. E Sanjeevani platform:-  It offers Provider to provider ( Doctor doctor interaction) provider to patient interaction,  where patient can visit to community health officer through smartphone.It seeks to connect all 1,50,000 HWCs using the hub-and-spoke model by December 2022.

????Under the model, a network will be established comprising an anchor establishment, or hub, which offers a full array of services, and will be complemented by secondary establishments, or spokes, which offer limited services, routing patients needing more intensive services to the hub for treatment.

2. Remote Shared Medical Appointment ( SMA):- 

What is this SMA??

Ans:- Shared medical appointments (SMAs), or group visits, are a healthcare delivery innovation arising from the changing demands of patient-centered medical home (PCMH) settings and the primary care context. The model emphasizes prompt access and improved service, increased doctor-patient contact time, greater patient education, enhanced prevention and disease self-management, closer attention to routine health maintenance and performance measures, and the central role of patient and clinician experience within the Triple Aim: enhancing patient experience, improving population health, and reducing costs. Example:- Aravind Eye hospital has trialled SME for patients with glaucoma.

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15-Feb-2021 04:04 PM

Context:- Delhi Police arrested girl for sharing Toolkit with Greta Thunberg

What is a Toolkit?

A toolkit is essentially a set of adaptable guidelines or suggestions to get something done. The contents differ depending on what the aim of the toolkit is. In the context of protests, a toolkit usually includes reading material on the context of the protest, news article links and methods of protest (including on social media).


1. During the Hong Kong protests, toolkits advised participants to wear masks and helmets to avoid being recognised and ways to put out tear gas shells.

2. During the anti-CAA protests, a toolkit suggesting twitter hashtags to use, places to hold protests, and a guide on what to do and carry with you if you are detained by the police were shared on social media.

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13-Feb-2021 07:30 AM


Self regulation by OTT services under the aegis of Internet and mobile association of India.

Provisions of the code:-

1. Prohibited Content: The signatories are supposed to ensure that they do not deliberately and maliciously make available content that disrespects the National flag or emblem; or any content that represents a child in stimulating sexual activities or showcases any of sexual parts of a child for sexual purposes; content that intends to outrage religious sentiments of any class, section or community; content that encourages or promotes terrorism or violence against the state; or any other content that is banned for exhibition or distribution.

2. Age Inappropriate / Sensitive Content: The signatories must not only ensure that the content available is age appropriate but also enable the option of parental control.

3. Complaint Redressal Forum: OTT platforms shall appoint a dedicated team or department to address consumer related issues and concerns related to content exhibited to the viewers

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12-Feb-2021 09:02 AM


Context :- We all know the content on the digital media are spreading like anything having potential to create an atmosphere of distrust, fear terror  through hate speech.Thus there is a need for electronic media regulation. In this context, the Ministry is working to amend IT (Intermediaries Guidelines Rules 2011) to make intermediaries more responsive and accountable. 

What is the present law and rule for regulation of Electronic media?


1 Section 69(1) of the Information Technology Act, 2000 allowed for intervention of information in the interest of the country’s sovereignty and integrity, security of the state, friendly relations with foreign states, or public order or for preventing incitement to the commission of any cognizable offence.

2. Section 79 of IT Act:- An intermediary shall not be liable for any third party information, data, or communication link made available or hosted by him.

The Information Technology [Intermediaries Guidelines (Amendment) Rules] 2018:-

1. Social media intermediaries should publish rules, privacy policy to stop users from engaging in online material which is paedophilic, pornographic, hateful, racially and ethnically objectionable, invasive of privacy, etc.

2. The online intermediaries should provide information or assistance within 72 hours when asked by any government agency for reasons of State security, cyber security, investigation, detection, prosecution or prevention of offences.

3. The online intermediaries should appoint in India, a nodal person of contact for 24X7 coordination with law enforcement agencies and ensure compliance with their orders.

Online Intermediaries should remove or disable access to unlawful content, within 24 hours.

4. The intermediary is also expected to preserve such information and associated records for at least 180 days for investigation purposes.

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11-Feb-2021 10:29 AM


This article is trying to give us information about 3 things:-

1. Disinformation threat is not less than cyber security threat. It employs same tactics and actions as cyber security preparators does.

2. It also talks about difference between cyber security and disinformation attacks.

3.. It talks about some technological intervention to check cybersecurity threat and then taking the help of this, making the case to control disinformation threats.

Difference between the Disinformation and cyber security threats:-

1. Cyberattacks are aimed at computer infrastructure while disinformation exploits our inherent cognitive biases and logical fallacies.

2. Cyber security attacks are executed using malware virus trojans, disinformation is manipulated and misappropriated information.

3. Like phishing attacks compromise IT Systems, Disinformation campaign play on emotions.

Disinformation is basically cognitive hacking:- 

1. Cognitive hacking is a threat from disinformation and computational propaganda. This attack exploits psychological vulnerabilities and best example is attack on US Capitol.


Tools to check cyber security threats:-

1. Regular patching

2. Security Firewall

3. Anti virus system 

These all are basically Defence in depth model which is an information assurance strategy that provides defensive measures..

The same model can be used to check disinformation threats which can identify the actors involved in this. Also media literacy and education is a key to deter disinformation threats.

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10-Feb-2021 09:10 AM


This information is about whether Governor can decide on the power of remission or Not.

Context :- Governor declined to grant remission to the convicts of Rajiv Gandhi.

Debate is whether he has a power or Not for the same

His argument:-

1. The apex court has ruled that in any case of crpc, remission would require centre's concurrence.

2. The second argument is convicts were tried under central law TADA, not under state law.

Counter arguments:- 

1.Convicts are tried only under IPC now as apex court has dropped charges under defunct TADA.

2. The same judgement which says for centre's concurrence, also said the court opinion is limited to CrPC, not the sovereign power of President and Governor. It means he can grant remission..

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10-Feb-2021 09:07 AM

POSCO DOES NOT BROOK DILUTION ( https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/pocso-doesnt-brook-dilution/article33795372.ece)

This article is talking about 3 things:

1. Comment on recent Bombay HC judgment

2. Bodily integrity of women.

3. Difference between IPC and POCSO.

Comment on Bombay HC Judgement

In Satish Ragde vs State of Maharashtra,  Accused was acquitted as he groped the victim over her clothes and there was no skin to skin contact. This is  really a bizarre and shocking. Apex court stayed the judgement finally.

What does act says on this??


Section 7 of the POCSO Act, says whosoever touches the breast of child is a sexual assault. It is a very simple statement how the judge can go in deeper analysis that skin to skin contact has not happened. Tomorrow they may say only one finger has touched so no sexual assault. We need to understand that women has her bodily integrity and whosoever touching her with sexual intent is sexual assault.

2. Difference between IPC and POCSO in relation to sexual assault

A. POCSO is for the protection of children specifically.

B. POCSO explicitly defines sexual assault.

C. Section 8 of POCSO provides minimum imprisonment of 3 years for sexual assault, while section 354 of IPC lays down punishment of minimum 1 year for sexual assault.

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01-Feb-2021 10:07 AM

CAG raised Flag On Kerala Infrastructure Investment Fund Board (KIIFB)

What is Kerala Infrastructure Investment Fund Board (KIIFB)?

Ans:- It was constituted in 1999 for providing financial assistance to public sector undertakings for investments in infrastructure projects.

What is the source of Revenue for KIIFB?


1. A major source of revenue planned was term loans from banks and financial institutions. The government decided to stand guarantee for the payment of principal and interest on these loans.

2. The government diverted a portion of motor vehicle taxes and fuel cess, to these Funds, which should normally go into state exchequer.

3.  Also from masala bonds listed on the London Stock Exchange.

4.In 2018, the KIIFB launched Pravasi Chitty, a scheme targeting a huge inflow of funds from Keralites living abroad who it hoped would invest in infrastructure projects at home.

What is the CAG's Finding?


1. Off-budget borrowings of the KIIFB are unconstitutional. The auditor said off-budget borrowings are not in accordance with Article 293(1) as these are not accounted for in the disclosure statements in the Budget documents, and hence do not have legislative approval.

2. The CAG noted that the KIIFB has no source of income, its only assured inflow being petroleum cess and part of motor vehicle tax, and that it has not invested in any profit-making enterprise or income-generating ventures so far.

GOVERNMENT VIEW:- The government is of the view that as it is providing a guarantee for principal and interest for the loans received by the KIIFB, the borrowings can be termed as contingent liabilities. It would become a liability on the government only when there is default by the KIIFB.

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01-Feb-2021 09:53 AM

15th Finance Commission and Expected Reform in Municipal Body

How 15th Finance commission is going to bring reform in municipality??


1. It will increase the overall outlay for the municipality. Expected outlay is 1.5 lakh - 2 lakh crore in next 5 years.

2. In order to receive FC Grants, Municipal body needs to:-

A. Publish Audited annual accounts.

B. Notification of floor rates for property tax.

3. It will also make a distinction between million plus urban agglomeration and other cities, so that targeted goals can be made based on requirements.

4. Finance commission has Recommended for common digital platform for municipal accounts.

Conclusion :- The complex political economy around devolution of funds from state government to municipalities should be further strengthened and State finance commission should emulate the 15 th FC .

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01-Feb-2021 09:36 AM

GANDHI'S IDEA ON DEMOCRACY ( https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/lead/the-mahatma-and-the-empowerment-of-the-other/article33711499.ece)

This article is about Gandhi's idea of Democracy, the most important part is we have read about oceanic circles of Decentralisation as a model of democracy that Gandhi has envisioned, but this article has provided a new dimension. We will try to  understand  this:-

What is this new perspective of Gandhi ji on democracy??


1. Democracy is a socio political institutions which seeks to empower the other by asserting it's right to speak freely and to act differently.

2. How to empower the others??


A. It is a right to express a different opinion than that of majority and to be heard openly and transparently.

B. The spirit of democracy requires a change of heart, it requires inculcation of spirit of brotherhood.

What are the conditions required for such kind of democracy??


1.It is feasible only in a political community where people have the art of listening.

2. Tolerant and inclusive Society is required for such kind of empowerment:- To focus on Empowerment of others.

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31-Jan-2021 12:16 PM


What is Telemedicine

Ans:- Telemedicine is the use of telecommunications and information technology to provide clinical healthcare at a distance.

Opportunities for telemedicine

1. Telemedicine is helpful for people living in rural areas. This is very crucial for India, since 70% of the population lives in rural areas.

2. Telemedicine helps overcome the shortage of health professionals. India currently has only 0.7 physicians per 1000 people while China and Russia have 5 and 1.5 respectively.

3. Telemedicine is a better option while dealing with particularly infectious diseases like swine flu.

Developments in Telemedicine

1. The Indian government has launched the SEHAT initiative to connect 60,000 common service centres nationwide and provide health care services to citizens. This will dovetail with the Digital India Initiative.

2. In 2009, KIDROP programme was launched in Karnataka to screen infants for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), a leading cause of childhood blindness. Its success has led to it being replicated in two more States.

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27-Jan-2021 11:22 AM

Recent controversy between Facebook official and Delhi legislative committee

This video describes the constitutional and legal provisions involved in the controversy between Facebook Official and the Committee of Delhi Legislative Assembly. This will also give you a fair idea about the Fundamental Rights of an Individual and the Privilege Power of the Legislature.

useful link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BHYCxwj40CQ&t=1s

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27-Jan-2021 11:20 AM


Why to use block chain for election??

Ans: Rising suspicion about EVM.

How this technology will be used in election??

Ans:- In this system, authority will check the bulletin board in which users will sign using cryptographic signature to register their votes in a ledger.

(Blockchain is a model whereby one can create and verify a set of time-stamped immutable records without any intermediary, and gives trust to all the parties involved in it. This network has no central authority and thus no one has the incentive to manipulate the truth. Here, in a sense, the system is owned by everybody and, conversely, no one owns the system.)


1. Pre Election:- It ensures that digital content comes from trusted sources.

2. Election:- Blockchain immutable ledger can help store identity data for authenticating voters and help securely record digital votes for tabulation.

3. Post Election:- Individual voters and election officials can each audit election election outcome on the public domain.

Example:- For the 2016 election, the Utah Republican Party choose their presidential nominee using Smartmatic’s voting platform.


1. An attacker may be able to clone the biometric attributes required for authentication as another individual and cast a vote on behalf.

2. Physical implants or software backdoors placed on an individual system could allow attackers to collect and deduce voting choices of individuals.

3. It may also make it prone to targeted Denial of service  where attackers can block the traffic.

4. Another issue is exclusion and disenfranchisement due to the flaws in interdependent platforms, flaws in system design.

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26-Jan-2021 10:05 AM


This article is about climate politics in the US.

The interest of new leadership in climate has again brought the debate on the role of US or developed countries in mitigation of climate change. But we cannot deny of politics involved here.

Steps taken by US to check climate change:-

1. Science advisory committee in 1965:- A report by the committee ( Restoring the quality of environment) pointed on the burning of fossil fuel and warned that this will lead to increase of 0.6 degree to 4 degree celsius of temperature by 2000.

2. A report of National research council in 1970s, revealed that doubling of atmospheric CO2 over pre industrial level could lead to global warming of about 3degree celsius.

Now understand the Politics:-

1. Corporate lobbyist especially fossil fuel industry has started attack on climate science in 1970. It is due to their lobbying, energy crisis of 1970s was aggravated and it has consolidated the strength of these industries after the coming of Petro dollars.( petrodollar system is an exchange of oil for U.S. dollars between countries that buy oil and those that produce it.)

2. The second report of IPCC was denounced publicly  by Frederick switz, who was associated with tobacco Industry.

3. Under intense lobbying by industry and workers, US senate passed Byrd Hagel Resolution which says US will not sign any climate treaty that limits it's limitations without developing countries agreeing to same limits. A kind of inaction  to be created in the global politics..as these lobbyist were aware that developing countries will not agree to the same limit.

4. Koch Family foundation has financed nearly 100 groups that attached climate science and politics.

But the US entry into Paris agreement again can be fruitful only if the leaders agree to :- 

1. Commit to technology and funds to developing countries.

2. Take on bigger emissions targets.

3. Break the elite network that have benefited by sustaining climate myths.

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26-Jan-2021 10:03 AM


This article is about Recent Bihar police circular that of you post anything offensive against the government and its officials, it will be the violation of law.

But the question is What are those legal principles that police can invoke:- It is not clear.

1. The police has not made  reference of any provision in the circular. Bit most probably they will try to use section 66 A of IT act, but it was struck down by SC in the context of punishment for sending offensive message through communication services. It means there is no punishment as per this provision for sending offensive message.

2. The cyber crime may initiate criminal defamation case also against the sender . But again, police can't register FIR for defamation, as this offence can be dealt only by the criminal complaint before magistrate.

Crux:- The government is intolerant to criticism, and not aware about legal provisions to be invoked in this case.

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